Lesson 13

New Vocabulary :

commonplace : biasa
interconnected : saling berhubungan
revealed : mengungkapkan
awareness : kesadaran
inventive : berdaya cipta
congenially : cocok
cooperatively : kerjasama
incessantly : terus menerus
encouragement : dorongan
glider : pesawat peluncur
gilders : menyepuh
slightly : sedikit
maneuvering : mengatur siasat
efforts : usaha
guiding : membimbing
advantages : keuntungan
precisely : tepat
manned : diawaki
proportion : ukuran
combustion : pembakaran
The Ideas Of Each Paragraph :

Reason for the success of the Wright brothers
Distinguishing the Wright brothers from other engineers
Progress of research Wright brothers
Risks of research Wright brothers
Answer The Question :

A. The reasons why the Wright brothers succeeded in manned flight.
B. Mentioned
C. Constantly
B. They were gilder pilots.
C. Because they were important in the refinement of the wings for their airplane
C. Engine
A. Destined to fail
D. They did not have enough power to lift their own weight.
D. They were well funded.
Summary Of The Passage :

In spite of these advantages, however, the Wright brothers might not have succeeded had they not been born at precisely the opportune moment in history.

Reading Comprehension 14

New Vocabulary :

independent : independen
overseeing : mengawasi
commonly : biasanya
council : dewan
regarding : mengenai
funds : membiayai
loans : pinjaman
senate : dewan
primarily : terutama
monetary : moneter
influencing : mempengaruhi
provides : memberikan
recession : resesi/pengunduran
augmented : ditambah
fueling : bahan bakar
inflation : inflasi/pemompaan
supervises : mengawasi
stray : nyasar
established : tetapkan
frequent : sering
The Ideas Of Each Paragraph :

The origin of the Federal Reserve System
Function of the Federal Reserve System
The task of the Fed
Explanation of the Federal Reserve
Answer The Question :

1. B. The Federal Reserve System
2. A. Supervising
3. D. Approved
4. B. To regulate monetary policies
5. B. Bonds
6. C. Interest rates go up
7. B. Too much money in the economy
8. C. The FED tends to follow the policies of the executive branch of the government
9. D. The Federal Reserve receives its yearly budget from Congress
Summary Of The Passage :

It has been said that the Federal Reserve is actually a fourth branch of the United States government because it is composed of national policy makers.

Reading Comprehension 12

Reading Comprehension 12

New Vocabulary :
predecessor : pendahulu
fundamental : mendasar
premise : alasan/pendapat
dogma : kepercayaan
merit : pantas
monk : biarawan
treatises : risalah/acuan
imperfection : ketidaksempurnaan
asserted : menyatakan
elusive : terabaikan/sukar dipahami
artisans : ahli
accustomed : membiasakan
cryptic : samar
attracted : menarik
struggle : berjuang
distinct : berbeda
labored : bekerja
earnestly : dengan sungguh-sungguh
devoted : mengabdikan
literary : berkaitan
The Ideas Of Each Paragraph :

Alchemy was alchemy was the predecessor of the modern science of chemistry
Early describes authentic works on European alchemy
about the early alchemists used the sun and moon terns to keep secret work, which in the difference between the base metals and gold.
explain about them to get a broad knowledge of chemicals because, alchemist laboratory failed to produce gold from other materials.
Answer The Question :

1. D. Alchemy was the predecessor of modern chemistry
2. B. Genuine
3. A. Perfection
4. B. An element that was never found
5. B. Secret
6. A. To keep the work secret
7. C. Artisans
8. B. The Literary alchemists recorded it in writing
9 B. Some very important scientific discoveries were made by alchemists

Summary Of The Passage :

Alchemy is the knowledge of transmuting energy, consciousness and matter and teaches us that Energy, Consciousness and Matter can be transmitted through the knowledge of how these interrelate and transmute one another.

Reading Comprehension 11

Reading Comprehension 11

1. principles : prinsip/dasar
2. promulgation : pengumuman
3. rejects : menolak
4. outright : sekaligus
5. imposed : memaksakan
6. ultimately : akhirnya
7. inseparably : tidak dapat dipisahkan
8. utilization : pemakaian
9. functionalism : berfungsi
10. excluding : tidak termasuk
11. sculptor : pemahat
12. innate : bawaan
13. spontaneous : secara spontan
14. palette : palet/lukis
15. terrain : tanah lapang
16. permeate : menembus
17. providing : menyediakan
18. separate : memisahkan/terpisah

19. Moreover : selain itu

20. sparse : jarang

The main idea :
1. The explanation of organic architecture
2. The explanation of natural principles
3. Differences of organic architecture

Answer The Question
1. A. Natural architecture
2. B. Eventually
3. C. Promoted
4. A. A bank that is built to look like a Greek Temple
5. B. To give an example of natural principles
6. A. Difficult to see
7. D. Form and function are one
8. C. Nature should be respected

– Summary Of The Passage :

the organic architect views the site and materials as an innate form that develops organically from within.

Reading Comprehension 10

New Vocabulary :

1. Acacia : akasia
2. shrubs : semak belukar
3. mimosa : pohon berbunga kuning
4. wattle : anyaman dahan kayu
5. daub : melumurkan
6. legumes : kacang polong
7. edible : dapat dimakan
8. spreading : menyebar
9. fragrant : harum
10. foliage : dedaunan
11. unobtrusive : mencolok
12. commonly : biasanya
13. dense : tebal
14. bark : kulit pohon
15. tannin : samak
16. acidic : keasaman
17. proven : membuktikan / terbukti
18. arid : kering/gersang
19. thrive : tumbuh subur
20. blossom : bunga

Main Idea
– The Origin of Acacia trees
– The information about species of Acacia
– Season blossom of acacia tree

Answer The Question :

1. B. Characteristic and varieties of the acacia
2. C. Twelve
3. A. Grow well
4. B. Varieties
5. C. Is taller than the Bailey Acacia
6. A. Smooth
7. B. Elaborate
8. D. Black Acacia
9. B. A table
10. C. August
Summary Of The Passage :

Nearly five hundred species of Acacia have been analyzed, identified, categorized, and proven capable of survival in hot and generally arid parts of the world.

Structure and Written Expressions 9


few non (count) Few reference books may be check out
little non (noncount)
Before he came to the U.S., he had done little traveling

Incorrect: My brother used to help me a lot,but now he gives me few advice.
Correct : My brother used to help me a lot, but now he gives me little adIncorrect: He had to balance his account very carefully because he had few money.

Correct : He had to balance his account very carefully because he had little money.

Problem 68 Much and Many

many noun (count–plural
There are many television programs for children on Saturday
much noun (noncount)
We don’t have much information

Incorrect: How much years have you been living in Texas?
Correct : How many years have you been living in Texas?

Incorrect: He always has much problems with his teeth.
Correct : He always has many problems with his teeth.

Incorrect: I think that there is too many violence on TV.
Correct : I think that there is too much violence on TV.

Problem 69 A Little and Little

A Few and Few
a little
little noun (noncount)
We have a little time
We have little time
a few
few noun (count–plural)
We made a few mistakes
We made few mistakes

Incorrect: There are few tickets left for the concert.
Correct : There are a few tickets left for the concert.

Incorrect: A few people in my apartment building are friendly.
Correct : few people in my apartment building are friendly.(not many)

Problem 70 Only a Few and Only a Little

only a few noun (count–plural)
Only a few dollars have been budgeted for supplies
Only a little noun (noncount)
We have only a little homework for Monday

Incorrect: We will need only a few food for the picnic.
Correct : We will need only a little food for the picnic.

Incorrect: Only few people were at the reception
Correct : only a few people were at the reception.

Problem 71 : A Large (Small) Number of and a large (Small) Amount of large

A number of
small noun (count–plural)
A large number of students from other countries attend State University large
A amount of
small noun (noncount)
A small amount of rain is expected tomorrow

Incorrect: The lab has a large number of equipment.
Correct : The lab has a large amount of equipment.

Problem 72 Almost All of the and Most of the

almost all (of the)
most all (of the) noun (count–plural) verb (plural)
Almost all (of the) trees in our yard are oaks
Most (of the) trees are oaks
almost all (of the)
most all (of the) noun (noncount) verb (singular)
Almost all (of the) art by R. C. Gorman is expensive
Most (of the) art by R. C. Gorman is expensive

incorrect: Most of the teachers at State University care about their students’ progress.
Correct : almost all of the teachers at State University care about their students’ progress.
Almost all teachers at State University care about their students’ progress.
Most of the teachers at State University care about their students’ progress.
Most teachers at State University care about their students’ progress

Structure and Written Expressions 8

Problem 63

Painters of the early twentieth century who were known primarily for they colorful landscapes, the Group of Seven changed is name to the Canadian Group of Painters in 1993.
*KEY : They is incorrect, the correct is their

The gray scale, a progressive series of shades ranging from black to white, is used in computer graphics —- detail to graphical images.
(A) added
(B) to add
(C) are added
(D) and add
*KEY : B (to add)

Problem 64

The cork oak tree has a layer of cork several inches thickness that can be stripped every ten years.
*KEY : Thickness is incorrect, the correct is thick

…. skeleton of an insect is on the outside of its body.
(A) Its
(B) That the
(C) There is a
(D) The
*KEY : D (the)

Problem 65

For a seagoing, cargo-carrying sailing vessels, the clipper ship was remarkably fast.
*KEY : Vessels is incorrect, the correct is vessel

By —- excluding competition from an industry, governments have often created public service monopolies.
(A) they adopt laws
(B) laws are adopted
(C) adopting laws
(D) having laws adopt
*KEY : C (adopting laws)

Problem 66

Diamond is the hardest known substance, so diamonds can be cut only by another.
*KEY : Another is incorrect, the correct is other

Cholesterol is present in large quantities in the nervous system, where —- compound of myelin.
(A) it a
(B) a
(C) being a
(D) it is a
*KEY : D (it is a)

Problem 67

Alaska became the forty-ninth state in 1959, and Hawaii became the fiftieth state lately that year.
*KEY : Lately is incorrect, the correct is later

To break thick ice, an icebreaker boat moves fast enough to ride up on the ice, —- under its weight.
(A) so then breaks
(B) when breaks it
(C) which then breaks
(D) for which then breaks
*KEY : C (which then breaks)